Chemistry Science

Difference between Acid and Base

Main Difference

Acid and base are the two types of corrosive substances which are useful for many purposes and can be defined in different ways. The main difference between them can be told with the pH value, if the value is less than 7 and greater than 0 then the substance is known as Acid. If the value of the material is more than 7 and less than 14 then that is known as Basic. For a litmus test, the color of paper turns red this will mean the substance is acid and if the color turns blue for the paper the substance is a base.

Comparison Chart

Basis of DistinctionAcidBase
Bronsted-Lowry DefinitionA substance which can act as a proton giver.A substance that has the ability to accept the pair of electron.
Arrhenius DefinitionA substance that increases the concentration of positive hydrogen ions when it is dissolved in water.A substance that increases the concentration of negative OH ions when they are dissolved in water.
Lewis DefinitionSubstances which can accept a pair of the election.Substances which have the ability to donate a pair of electron.
pH Scale0-77-14
Litmus Test RedBlue
ExamplesHydrochloric acid and Sulphuric acid.Sodium Hydroxide and Ammonia.

Acid

acidThere is no one definition that is able to define the term acid, and therefore many of them are used as a standard to help in understanding what it actually is. The most famous definition in this regard is the Arrhenius one, which states that acid is a substance that increases the concentration of positive hydrogen ions when it is dissolved in water. The another definition is by Lewis, which indicates that acids are substances which can accept a pair of the election. This one is mostly used in chemistry books for students since it is easier to understand and the concept can be elaborated properly. The next definition for acids is the Bronsted-Lowry theory which states that acid is a substance which can act as a proton giver. All these definitions give an idea that Acid is relatively unstable and are considered elements which have a pH value of less than 7. The less the value it will mean that the acid is stronger. The strength of an acid depends on its ability to donate a proton. A strong acid will be considered as the one which is entirely losing all its protons when added in water while a weak one will only partially dissociate in water. Acids have a sour taste and can be extremely dangerous if they are not handled properly. The best examples of them will be hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid. They have many uses and are most commonly utilized to corrode metals, as an electrolyte in a wet cell battery and for cars.

Base

baseJust like acids, a base has also been defined under the same three theories since they are the opposite of each other and closely related. The first one is the Arrhenius definition which defines base as a substance that increases the concentration of negative OH ions when they are dissolved in water. Moving on to the next definition which is by Lewis, bases are the substances which have the ability to accept a pair of electron. The easier it is for a base to accept a pair of electrons the stronger it will be. The last one is the Bronsted-Lowry theory which states that a base is a substance that has the ability to accept the pair of electron. The best way to tell that a substance is a base is by the pH value, it the value is greater than 7 then a substance is a base but when the value keeps on increasing it means that the base is stronger. The value can go as high as 14 in some cases. They are slippery in nature when touched because the oil in our hands reacts with the base to give such a feeling. They are bitter in taste and therefore are extremely hazardous. The best examples of a base will be Sodium Hydroxide and Ammonia and usually end with OH. Once the litmus test is applied to it, you will see that a base will turn the paper in blue color while acids turn the paper into red color. The more concentrated the ions in it, the base, will be stronger.

Key Differences

  • Acid is a substance that increases the concentration of positive hydrogen ions when it is dissolved in water. While the base is a substance that increases the concentration of negative OH ions when they are dissolved in water.
  • Acids are substances which can accept a pair of the election while Bases are the substances which have the ability to donate a pair of electron.
  • Acid is a substance which can act as a proton giver while Base is a substance that has the ability to accept the pair of electron.
  • During the litmus paper test, the substance that turns red are known as an Acid while the substance that turns blue is known as a Base.
  • If the substance has a pH value of less than 7 and greater than zero, it is known as an Acid while the substance that has a pH value of greater than 7 and less than 14 is known as a base.

Video Explanation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRBcKEkBj_8

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