Difference between Active Transport and Passive Transport

Main Difference

The main and the most promising difference between active and passive transport is, passive transport does not require energy while active energy does. In the case of active transport, the molecules move against the concentration gradient from low to high concentration. In passive transport, the molecules move with the concentration gradient from high to low concentration.

Active Transport

acive-transportIn active transportation molecules are suppose to move against the concentration gradient. In this process, chemical energy is required so that biochemical compounds can move from low to high concentration. Active transport uses ATM to pump molecules through the concentration gradient. So the transport occurs from low concentration of solute to high concentration of solute, this process requires cellular energy. Endocytosis, exocytosis, sodium potassium pump are all the examples of active transport. Large cells, complex sugars, ions, proteins and many more particles are transported in this process. Secretion of a substance into the blood stream is an example of active transport as well. In a eukaryotic cell, particles enter the cell by protein pump, which requires active transport.

Passive Transport

passive-trasportPassive transport requires no energy for the transportation because biochemicals move from high concentration to low concentration. Diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion are examples of passive transport. Particles which are soluble easily are transported via passive transport. It has an importance of maintaining equilibrium in the cell, waste is excreted out of the cell by means of passive transport, like carbon-dioxide or water. Oxygen and other nutrients which are useful for the cell are diffused inside the cell by the process of passive transport. Passive transport  further helps in maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of gases, waste, water etc. No net equilibrium is maintained after the process of diffusion or osmosis.

Key Differences

  • Active transport requires energy in the form of ATM while passive transport does not.
  • In active transport molecules move against the concentration gradient but in passive transport, molecules move from high to low concentration..
  • Types of active transport are endocytosis, exocytosis. Types of passive transport include, osmosis, diffusion.
  • Anything soluble is transported by passive transport and particles like proteins, ions, large cells, sugars are transported by the process of active transport.
  • Importance of active transport is, it includes diffusion of such particles which can not diffuse or which may diffuse very easily. On the other hand, passive transport maintains an equilibrium in the cell. Waste is diffused out, nutrition is taken in.

Video Explanation