Biology

Difference between Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation

Mian Difference

Speciation refers to the evolutionary process of genesis of the new species. The formation of these new and distinct species from the existing species occurs in two different ways Allopatrically and Sympatrically. Allopatric speciation occurs mainly due to the geographic isolation while Sympatric speciation happens within a population, by appearance of reproductive limitations or barriers.

Comparison Chart

 Allopatric SpeciationSympatric Speciation
Geographic isolation neededYesNo
Major differentiation mechanismNatural selectionPolyploidy
Speed of creation of new speciesSlowAutopolyploidy – fast; allopolyploidy – slow
Are they Common in nature?YesYes – in plants
The ExamplesDarwin’s Finches; squirrels in the Grand CanyonCultivated corn, wheat and tobacco

Allopatric Speciation
This type of speciation occurs when biological populations of the existing species get separated from each other. The separation leads them to interfere with genetic interchange. The isolation is caused by geographical barriers like rivers, mountains etc. The separation greatly reduces the chances of interbreeding between the populations. The changes in population enable them to adapt to the new environment. The reproductive separations detach two populations into two species. Allopatrical separation is regarded as the most common form of speciation.

Sympatric Speciation
This type of speciation occurs when there is a formation of two new and distinct species which develop from a single existing ancestral species. This formation evolves while dwelling in the same geographical area. Here the biological populations are not geographically isolated. This type of speciation often occurs through polyploidy. A diploid individual and a tetraploid individual cannot interbreed together and it leads to a reproductive separation. Sympatric Speciation occurs rarely and it is commonly found in plants rather than animals.

Key Differences

  • In Allopatric speciation gene flow doesn’t occur between the populations as the species remain isolated from each other. The distinct species occur in a different environment.
  • Sympatric speciation occurs when the species of populations evolve at the same environment.
  • Because of living in the same niche there lie the chances of no gene flow.
  • Allopatric speciation occurs mainly due to the geographic isolatio.
  • Sympatric speciation happens within a population, by appearance of reproductive limitations.

Video Explanation

The above article furnishes the authentic information about the Allopatric Speciation and Sympatric Speciation. It enables one to draw the exact differences between both the speciation.

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