Biology Education Health Medicine

Difference between Enveloped and Non-Enveloped Virus

Main Difference

The main difference between enveloped and non-enveloped lies in their structure. Enveloped viruses are made up of lipids and proteins. Rarely glycoprotein is also present. The glycosylation by the host cell prevent this virus from the attack of body’s immune system. While on the other hand, non enveloped viruses have a capsid coat and they are more virulent than enveloped viruses. They cause host lysis.

Enveloped Virus

enveloped-virusThe outermost envelope of enveloped virus is made up of glycoprotein or protein which is surrounded by capsid and lipids. They are less virulent as compared to non-enveloped virus and they cause host lysis very rarely. They are often released by budding. once they attack a host, they induce cell mediated and antibody mediated immunity in the body. Spikes or peplomers are the projections which project out from their envelopes. They are sensitive to dryness, acid or heat and when they dry, they lose their infectivity. They are very vulnerable to hot climate or acidic environment. Enveloped viruses are more stable and can survive unfavorable conditions as well.

Non-Enveloped Virus

non-enveloped-virusNon-enveloped virus is more virulent and causes host cell lysis. They are resistant to heat, dryness or acid. They are surrounded by a protein coating, which attaches them to the host cell for causing an infection. Moreover, they induce antibodies and are capable of surviving in the GIT. Therefore, intestinal infections are caused in greater number due to non-enveloped virus. They have a complex outer structure and that is why they cannot withstand harsh environmental conditions. They are less stable and they cannot survive in the host for long span of time.

Key Differences

  • Enveloped virus has a coat of lipids and proteins while non-enveloped virus have a capsid coat.
  • Non-enveloped virus is more virulent.
  • Non-enveloped virus may cause host lysis on a larger scale as compared to enveloped.
  • Non-enveloped virus is more resistant to harsh environment rather than enveloped.
  • Non-enveloped virus cannot survive in the host for that long.
  • Enveloped virus is not capable of surviving in the GIT, while non-enveloped virus can.
  • Enveloped virus has a coat on which their are projection of spikes.
  • Enveloped virus induce antibody and cell mediated immunity while non-enveloped virus induce antibodies.
  • Non-enveloped virus can retain its infectivity even after drying.
  • Example of enveloped virus is adenovirus and that of non-enveloped virus is influenza virus.