The term “federal” and “national” are used to define the governments of the world. These terms describe either government system of a country is at state level or central level. More or less, both government system performs similar functions but in different style.
Federal is a type of government system in which power and authorities are shared between states and provinces regarding basic facilities. In this system both are independent on each other regarding internal affairs. Basic law is imposed by the central state while local government or provinces are allow to make law for their respective regions if so authorized by the constitution. Federal system is considered as the best system in democratic world. External matters are only solved by the central state while any kind of internal affairs are settled by the mutual contribution of the provinces.
To some extent, the meaning of national is same as federal. In relation to authorities and duties, national means a government system of the state is which all parties or technocrats form a government for a specified term. This is basically apply in those countries where political parties are unable to provide a solid policy for the problems of the state and a technocrats or national government comes into existence. All the powers and authorities rests at the central place.
- Federal relates to the whole system of the government while national is a part of this system.
- Mostly federal relates to the whole state while national relates to the central position.
- Although national is the part of federal system but it is more powerful and effective than federal. Because in national system those policies are adopted, which are equally favorable for the whole nation.
- Federal system comes into existence through a proper constitutional process while national setup is made with the consensus of the political parties and stake holder of the state.