Biology

Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA




  • Main Difference

    Prokaryotic DNA do not have any cell nucleus within the structure of the cell, and the DNA, therefore, don’t organize properly as a chromosome. Eukaryotic DNA have a proper cell nucleus within the structure of the cell, and the DNA, therefore, are organized properly as a chromosome.

    Comparison Chart

    Basis of Distinction Prokaryotic DNA Eukaryotic DNA
    Definition No nucleus, therefore no structural shape formation exists. Full nucleus, therefore a proper structure and shape exists.
    Content Content within stays less and usually below the 0.1 pg mark. The amount of DNA within the Eukaryotic DNA remains more than the other processes and always greater than 0.1 pg.
    Location Always lies without any restrictions inside the cytoplasm always stays within the nucleus of the system and covered with the cytoplasm.

    Prokaryotic DNA

    DNA exchange between prokaryotic cells happens in microorganisms and archaea, although it has been fundamentally considered in microscopic organisms. In microscopic organisms, the quality transfer occurs by three procedures. These are a bacterial infection intervened transduction, plasmid-interceded conjugation, and general change. Transduction of bacterial conditions by bacteriophage seems to mirror infective particles, instead of an adjustment of the host microbes. The exchange of bacterial DNA is under the control of the bacteriophage’s qualities as opposed to bacterial conditions. A prokaryotic chromosome is oblique and lives in the nucleoid. The types of proteins found in prokaryotic chromosomes, known as the nucleoid-related proteins, vary from the histone proteins that show up in eukaryotic chromosomes and make up the prokaryotic chromosomes. Prokaryotes commonly have just first chromosome, though it may have a duplicate of it. These cells also have DNA structures called plasmids. The quantity of nucleotide in the prokaryotic chromosome ranges from 160,000 to 12.2 million, depending on the type of species. Naturally occurring bacteria also have a role to play and have various shapes that help with the distinction such as cocci, bacilli, and others.

    Eukaryotic DNA

    Eukaryotic DNA replication is a conserved process that limits DNA replication to just once per cell cycle. Eukaryotic DNA replication of chromosomal DNA is vital for the duplication of a cell and is essential for the support of the eukaryotic genome. Individual eukaryotic chromosome bundling show thick pressing, fenced in area inside an atomic film and are direct instead of plump structures. Eukaryotes often have different types of chromosomes with numerous base sets. For example, have have 23 sets of chromosomes for both male and female containing around 2.9 billion base matches altogether. Eukaryotic DNA replication depends on different replication beginnings, around 100 base sets for each second. In prokaryotes, just two proteins are required to start replication, though eukaryotes utilize structures made from different protein subunits. DNA replication happens in inverse headings between the two new strands at the replication fork, yet all DNA polymerases arrange DNA in the 5′ to 3′ course for the recently integrated strand. It has a proper structure and therefore has many features that have more understanding and working than the other processes which have a similar mechanism.

    Key Differences

    • The amount of DNA content within the Prokaryotic DNA stays less than the other process and usually below the 0.1 pg mark. On the other hand, the amount of DNA within the Eukaryotic DNA remains more than the other processes and always greater than 0.1 pg.
    • The Prokaryotic DNA always lies without any restrictions inside the cytoplasm, on the other hand, the Eukaryotic DNA always has to stay within the nucleus of the system and covered with the cytoplasm.
    • The shape of Prokaryotic DNA is mostly circular, and therefore the organelles always have the same look. On the other hand, the form of Eukaryotic DNA is linear, and therefore the shape of organelles may vary from circular to linear.
    • The regions where no activity takes place are found abundantly in the Eukaryotic DNA. On the other hand, such regions do not have any existence within the Prokaryotic DNA.

    Video Explanation